Middle East & South Asia

Middle East & South Asia (5)

Coal and water linkages are in place for NTPC's new 1,600 thermal power plant at Ramagundam near here, a top company executive said on Saturday.
Addressing a press conference at Ramagundam, NTPC Executive Director P K Mohapatra said coal and water linkages have been obtained for the project, which will house two units of 800 MW each. Environment clearance has also been received for the electricity plant, he said, adding the foundation for the project would be laid next month.

For Phase-I, power purchase agreement has been executed with Telangana State Transmission Corp (Transco), Mohapatra said. "Both units are likely to be completed by October 2019." The PSU already has a thermal power plant at Ramagundam, nearly 70km from here, and the new facility is part of it
Coal will be sourced from Singareni Collieries, Mandakini block in Odisha and Western Coal fields, he said, adding water will come from Yellampally barrage. The state-run utility's existing plant at Ramagundam currently generates 2,600 MW. "It is one of the best power stations in India," Mohapatra said.

"Once the new units become operational, Ramagundam will house the largest power generating station in the country," Mohapatra told.

Researchers at Aligarh Muslim University today claimed to have formulated a process to convert hazardous environmental wastes like recycled Polythene Terephthalate (PET) and fly ash produced by thermal power plants into construction material. Associate Professor Fareed Mahdi, who is heading the project, said that PET is being widely used for making bottles for mineral water and carbonated drinks and presently poses a real threat to the environment.

The researchers of the department of Civil Engineering, Zakir Husain College, headed by Professor Mahdi, claimed to have formulated a process for the industrial production to convert these hazardous environmental wastes.

He said that he has applied for a patent with the Controller of Patents and Designs, for the conversion process of both the waste products."The use of fly ash in polymer concrete would also lead to a major reduction in the use of coarse sand which is presently leading to a major environmental crisis stemming from massive mining of sands from different river beds," he said.

Mahdi said his findings have earlier been published in the prestigious journal 'Construction of Building Materials' published by Elsveier Press. Another positive outcome of using fly ash as a building material would be that the agricultural lands, presently being used as dumping sites for such wastes, could again be used for agricultural purposes, he added.

Soma Kolin Thermal Power Plant, Ankara, Turkey

Written by Monday, 01 September 2014 12:46

Soma Kolin is a 510MW coal-based thermal power plant being constructed in the town of Soma in Ankara, Turkey, by Turkish company HIDRO-GEN Enerji Ithalat Ihracat Dagitim ve Ticaret, a subsidiary of Kolin Group of Companies.

The plant will consist of two 255MW units using domestic lignite coal from the nearby coal fields for generating power to be fed to the national grid. The plant construction commenced in January 2014 and commissioning is expected in April 2017.

"The plant is expected to operate for approximately 6,000 hours a year to produce 2.7billion KWh of electricity for residential use."

Soma Kolin power plant make-up

The thermal power plant will feature two circulating fluidised-bed (CFB) boiler islands and flue gas scrubbers. The contract to design and supply the boilers and scrubbers was awarded to Foster Wheeler, a subsidiary of Global Power, in February 2014.

The CFB boilers will be deigned to burn local lignite operating at low combustion temperatures resulting in low nitrogen oxide and sulphur oxide emissions and high combustion efficiency.

As part of the contract, Foster Wheeler will design and supply two 255MWe steam generators and auxiliary equipments required for the boiler islands, and flue gas cleaning systems for the CFB scrubbers. The company will also provide technical advisory services during erection and commissioning of the power plant.

The Siemens SST5-5000 HM-N model steam turbines to be installed at the plant will produce steam at a pressure ranging from 177bar to 190bar and temperature ranging from 565°C to 600°C.

Electrostatic precipitator with fly and bottom ash hoppers will be installed to capture the fly ash produced during the power generation.

"The project will also include the construction of a chimney desulphurisation system, fans, coal feeding systems, and associated transmission lines."

Contractors involved

Harbin Electric International (HEI) has been appointed as the engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contractor for the $1bn project.

Siemens Energy will supply the two steam turbines including all auxiliary and ancillary systems to HEI. The equipment is scheduled to be delivered at the project site between August 2015 and January 2016.

Fuel supply to the Turkish power plant

The plant is being erected 90km north of Soma town in Turkey's western province of Manisa where large coal reserves are present. The Turkish energy policy places great importance on utilising the available resources for the production of power.

Hidro-Gen signed an agreement with Turkish Coal Enterprise in October 2012 for using the existing reserves of Denis II, Evciler, Kozluören and Türkpiyale lignite sites on a condition that a thermal power plant is built in the Soma Denis lignite field.

The agreement period is 30-years beginning from the date of commissioning of the power plant. Hidro-Gen will start making royalty payments from the beginning of the seventh year.

Alcoa Gas-Fired Cogeneration Facility

Written by Saturday, 16 August 2014 04:54

Alinta's natural-gas-fired cogeneration facility is located in Alcoa's Pinjarra Alumina Refinery in Western Australia. The A$300m facility was built in two stages, each with a gas turbine generator (GT), heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and auxiliary equipment.

Stage one was completed in March 2006. The second unit was put into commercial operation in February 2007. The combined output of the two units is 280MW of sent out electricity and up to 840t/h of high-pressure steam.

Alinta owns and operates the facilities which run 24 hours / day. Compared to a same footprint coal fired plant, the two cogeneration units can save around 900,000t of greenhouse gas emissions a year. The plant also reduces Alcoa's refinery emissions by 270,000t a year.

Cogeneration units: GT and HRSG

"The cogeneration unit is one of Western Australia's most energy efficient power plants."

The cogeneration units are built on a 2.5ha site within Alcoa's Pinjarra Alumina Refinery, about 6km east of the town of Pinjarra. The site is immediately south of the refinery's existing gas-fired powerhouse and adjacent to the refinery's natural gas supply pipeline and a Western Power 132kV substation.

The cogeneration unit is one of Western Australia's most energy efficient power plants. Waste heat from the gas turbines generates steam for Alcoa's Pinjarra refinery and Alinta supplies power at lower cost to customers within the South-West Interconnected System (SWIS).

Alcoa's Pinjarra refinery produces 4.2 million tons of alumina per annum, representing about 7% of the world's alumina refining capacity. This capacity was achieved after completion of an upgrade to the alumina plant in 2006 at an investment of $805m.

Aluminia production takes heavy energy input


The bauxite recovered from the Darling Range is of a low quality. For every three tons of bauxite mined, only one ton of alumina is recovered. This means more energy has to be used to remove the alumina from this low-grade ore than at refineries with higher grade ore. The Pinjarra refinery uses three forms of energy in the alumina refining process: natural gas, steam and electricity.

The annual net average CO2 emissions from the cogeneration unit at Pinjarra are estimated to be 474,500t. The efficiency upgrade and the Alinta cogeneration projects have cut greenhouse gas emissions by approximately 15% a year.

Cogeneration allows throttling back of existing gas-fired boilers


Alcoa's steam generation facilities at Pinjarra consisted of six gas-fired boilers, which produced an average 910t/h of high-pressure steam. The cogeneration facilities provide steam more efficiently (more than 80% efficient compared with 25% to 50% for other power plants operating in WA) and at lower cost. The steam produced by each cogeneration facility replaces the requirement for 240t/h of high-pressure steam previously generated by the refinery's boilers.

The new gas turbines use dry low-NOx burners to achieve emissions of less than 25ppm(v) NOx (expressed at 0°C, 1,013.25hPa, dry and 15% O2) during normal operations, as required in EPA Guidance Statement No.15 (EPA, 2000).

"Alinta's natural-gas-fired cogeneration facility is located in Alcoa's Pinjarra Alumina Refinery in Western Australia."

Heat from the turbine exhaust gases produces high-pressure steam in the HRSG unit. When a gas turbine is operating at loads less than 100%, the HRSG is fired using additional supplies of natural gas to maintain 240t/h steam output.

Cogeneration units 1 and 2 supply just less than 50% of the refinery's current steam requirements, thus permitting a substantial 'throttling back' of the existing boilers. The improved efficiency is resulting in a net annual reduction in greenhouse gas emissions associated with steam production of some 150,000t CO2 for the two units.

Using refinery 'cold' condensate in the HRSGs instead of the refinery boilers also allows the existing boilers to be supplied with hotter condensate. This reduces the steam needed to heat boiler feedwater and the steam can be used elsewhere in the refinery process, further increasing efficiency.

The two cogeneration units have reduced steam demand from the existing refinery boilers by 4% to 5% - a further annual reduction of approximately 90,000t of CO2.

Automated, integrated control


The cogeneration units have been automated and integrated into the refinery powerhouse's existing distributed control system. The units 'load follow' customer requirements and operate at between 85% and 100% capacity on a daily basis.
Power is generated at 15kV then stepped up to 132kV through an on-site transformer.

Natural gas distribution and retail


Alinta distributes and retails natural gas in Western Australia, currently delivering natural gas to over 580,000 customers. The cleaner and cheaper electricity produced by the cogeneration plant is an important part of Alinta's move into competing for business and industrial customers.

Alcoa produces primary aluminium, fabricated aluminium and alumina. The company is active in all major aspects of the industry including technology, mining, refining, smelting, fabricating and recycling.

Highway 6, Yitzhak Rabin, Israel

Written by Tuesday, 04 March 2014 08:10

Highway 6, or the Cross-Israel Highway, is a 193km highway (including the 76km of the southern extensions) along the eastern part of Israel from south of Beer sheva to the Galilee in the north.

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